Chmury – ich kształty przyczyniają się do najpiękniejszych i najbardziej romantycznych widoków natury. Ale poza aspektem wizualnym, te masy ciekłych kropel, to jedne z najbardziej złożonych naukowych fenomenów.

Nawet jeśli różne kształty chmur wydają ci się przypadkowe i trudne do opisania, istnieje system klasyfikacji chmur, który jest jednakowy na całym świecie. Luke Howard, brytyjski chemik i meteorolog amator, był pierwszym, który przedstawił nomenklaturę systemu dla chmur w 1802r. Dzisiaj chmury są kategoryzowane ze względu na ich kształt, wysokość, proces formowania oraz innych cech.

Chmury Mammatus

Te chmurki, zwane również mammatocumulus, swoją meteorologiczną nazwę wzięły z komórkowej struktury sakiewek wiszących pod podstawą chmury. Ciekawe za to jest to, że nazwa ta pochodzi od łacińskiego słowa mamma (czyli „wymię” lub „pierś”) i nawiązuje do podobieństwa pomiędzy charakterystycznym kształtem tejże chmury a kobiecymi piersiami. Także natura wie co dobre, i czasem odsłania swe piersi na świat.

Chmury Mammatus

©Vincent Fryhover

Chmury Mammatus

©Ken Lewis

Chmury Mammatus

©HeavyLight.ca

 

Chmury Lenticular

Nieruchome chmury o kształcie soczewek, ze względu na ich kształt, często były mylone jako niezidentyfikowane obiekty latające (UFO). W związku z silnymi wiatrami otaczające te chmury, piloci samolotów unikają obszarów ich występowania, gdyż często towarzyszą im turbulencje. Za to piloci szybowców, wręcz je wypatrują ze względu na łatwe do zlokalizowania wiatry noszenia, które sprzyjają długim i wysokim lotom.

Chmury Lenticular

©Jean-Michel Priaux

Chmury Lenticular

©Dementievskiy Ivan

Chmury Lenticular

©Brian Middleton

 

Chmury Undulatus Asperatus

Do tej pory nie wiadomo dokładnie, jakie są przyczyny powstawania pana „wzburzonego” (z łac.).  Chmury są bowiem grudkowate, pełne fałd i przypominają wzburzone morze, tylko, że „do góry nogami”. Ich nazwa jest tylko potoczna, ponieważ zaobserwowane zostały po raz pierwszy w 2009r. Jeśli dojdzie do wpisu w Międzynarodowym Atlasie Chmur, to będzie to pierwszy przypadek od 1953r., kiedy to ostatni raz uzupełniano ów rejestr.

Chmury Undulatus Asperatus

©JΩSH

Chmury Undulatus Asperatus

©JΩSH

Chmury Undulatus Asperatus

© wittap

Chmury Fallstreak Hole

Żeby powstała opadająca dziura, kropelki wody w warstwie chmury muszą być mocno schłodzone (czy tylko mi przyszło na myśl piwo?) i być na granicy zamarzania. Wtedy schłodzone kropelki stają się cięższe i tworzą opadającą dziurę, ale nie zamarzną póki temperatura powietrza nie osiągnie -40C. Dzięki temu, że ich temperatura zamarzania jest tak niska, utrzymują się one dłużej w powietrzu. Zaraz, zaraz, woda, która nie zamarza przy -40C? Powodem tego jest brak tzw. cząstek jądra lodu. Najprawdopodobniej winowajcami miejscowego ochłodzenia są samoloty. Rozprężenie powietrza, jakie przebiega przez skrzydła samolotu, powoduje, że się ochładza. To gwałtowne ochłodzenie może być wystarczające do obniżenia temperatury wystarczająco nisko, że kropelki zaczną samoistnie zamarzać. Ponieważ efekt ten jest bardzo rzadki, często jest mylony z UFO.

Chmury Fallstreak Hole

© lookseenseen

Chmury Fallstreak Hole

© mtnrockdhh

Chmury Fallstreak Hole

© ladigue_99

 

C.D.N.

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